Genealogia: unisciti alla ricerca dei discendenti viventi della madre di Edoardo II, Eleonora di Castiglia

Hai lo stesso DNA mitocondriale di Edoardo II? Aiutaci a completare le tavole genealogiche in questa pagina!

Sei un appassionato di genealogia e vuoi scoprire se sei una delle persone che cerchiamo? Per favore dai un’occhiata ai nomi delle tabelle qui sotto. Se una di queste donne è tra i tuoi antenati, ti invitiamo in contatto con noi, potresti essere proprio tu ad aiutarci a risolvere il mistero del Re Edoardo II di Inghilterra (clicca qui per scoprire come!).

A partire da importanti ricerche condotte dalla storica Kathryn Warner e da Kevin McKenzie, il nostro collaboratore Terry Muff, con l’aiuto di sua nipote Bethany, è riuscito a portare a termine l’arduo compito di completare le seguenti tavole genealogiche. Terry è un detective della polizia in pensione e, come forse potete immaginare, ha delle formidabili capacità investigative!

Le tavole genealogiche sottostanti seguono esclusivamente la linea di trasmissione del DNA mitocondriale: dalla madre di Edoardo II, Eleonora di Castiglia, fino a noi, attraverso le sue discendenti secondo la linea diretta di madre in figlia. Si inizia con quelle di due diversi rami della famiglia, quello di Lucy Eyre e quello di Thomasine Kirkham.

Discendenti di Lucy Eyre

Clicca qui per visualizzare la linea diretta che riconduce Lucy Eyre a Eleonora di Castiglia, madre di Edoardo II, ottenuta dalle ricerche di Kathryn Warner.

(1) Lucy Eyre (d. before 1556) = Humphrey Stafford of Eyam

(1.1) Gertrude Stafford b c 1553 Eyam, Derbyshire, = Rowland Eyre of Hassop

– – (1.1.1) Jane Eyre, m Christopher Pegge

– – – (1.1.1.1) Prudence Pegge b 15/10/1598 at Kniveton, Derbyshire, = John Hollingworth of Hollingworth 1615

– – – (1.1.1.2) Anne Pegge b 11/2/1602 = Johannes Whitewall of Yeldersley

– – (1.1.2) Frances Eyre b1558 Hassop, Derby

(1.2) Alice Stafford = Anthony Savage

– – (1.2.1) Alice Savage married Francis Thornton 13/4/1674

– – – (1.2.1.1) Margaret Thornton – emigrated to Virginia in 1669 with the Strothers (see 1.2.2.)

– – – (1.2.1.2) Elizabeth Thornton = George Towndrow of Eckington, Derby 28/6/1703 but only issue was 2 sons. This line appears to be without any female issue.

– – (1.2.2) Dorothy Savage = William Strother. The Strother’s emigrated to Virginia 1669 and ?taking Margaret Thorton with them.

(1.3) Ann Stafford = Francis Bradshaw of Bradshaw Hall in 1565.

– – (1.3.1) Lucy Bradshaw = Nicholas Cresswell of Ford 1621

– – – (1.3.1.1) Barbara Cresswell only daughter = John Barber in 1648

– – – – (1.3.1.1.1) Ann Barber b 29/9/1650 = Robertus Outrim 24/4/1672, Brampton

– – – – (1.3.1.1.2) Grace Barber b 1/3/1651/2 = Benjamin Twigg 8/1682 Chesterfield

– – – – – (1.3.1.1.2.1.) Elizabeth Twigg b 1695 = John Tatlow, St Wegburghs Derby 26/12/1723

– – – – – (1.3.1.1.2.2.) Hannah Twigg b 9/1/1684 = Anthony Gregory of Culver, at Bakewell 11/2/1710/11

– – – – (1.3.1.1.2) Mary Barber bapt 23/10/1653

(1.4) Catherine Stafford (bapt 1/9/1568) = Rowland Morewood of The Oaks

– – (1.4.1) Anne Morewood, = James Bullock of Greenhill

– – – (1.4.1.1) Elizabeth Bullock (bapt 12/04/1608) = Godfrey Froggat of Mayfield (d. 1664)

– – – – (1.4.1.1.1) Elizabeth Frogatt (1636-1639) m. Thomas Burley of Greenhill

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.1.1.1) Elizabeth Johnstone b c 1686

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.1.1.2) Jane Johnstone b 9/9/1688

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.1.1.3) Dorothy Johnstone b 9/1/1690 d 1690

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.1.1.5) Barbara Johnstone b 3/11/1699 (A Barbara Johnston = Thomas Pender at St Bartholomew the Great, London 19/10/1726.)

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.1.1.6) Margaret Johnstone b 3/9/1701 d 1701

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.1.1.7) Catherine Johnstone b 9/9/1702

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.1.1.8) Sarah Johnston b 17/8/1698 m James Richardson 1725 or 28/3/1731 at York Minster

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.1.1.9) ? Elizabeth Johnstone b at Stoke = a Thomas Acton 14/5/1695/6 (but currently unsubstantiated).

– – – – (1.4.1.1.2) Alice Frogatt (bapt 9/8/1630 Norton, Derby, d. 12/11(1691), = 9/12/1646 to Thomas Bulkeley, Gent of Stanlow, Leek, Staffs

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.2.1) Elizabeth Bulkeley b 1647 Audley, = John Dormer.

– – – – – – (1.4.1.1.2.1.1) Alice Dormer, bapt 3/2/1675/6

– – – – – – (1.4.1.1.2.1.2) Dianah Dormer 25/6/1689 Stoke on Trent

– – – – – – (1.4.1.1.2.1.3) Maria Dormer bapt 10/4/1687 Stoke on Trent (St Peter and Vincula)

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.2.2) Alice Bulkeley(1) b 4/1/1652 d 20/6/1659. (In Dugdales visitation Alice is listed as “living in London”)

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.2.3) Alice Bulkeley(2) b /d 12/1/1664

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.2.4) Mary Bulkeley b 24/3/1657 married (1) ? William Hordern. (William Horden was a Cutler of Warrington)

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.2.5) Catherine Bukeley b 22/7/1659 (Dugdale’s has Catherine as living in London, unmarried)

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.2.6) Anna Bulkeley b 29/10/1667

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.2.7) Jocosa (Joyce) Bulkeley b 1669 married Richard Locker (Gent) of Kingsley, Staffs 2/1/1704/5 by Licence.

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.2.8) Priscilla Bulkeley b 7/8/1674. Died as a Spinster 21/3/1687 at Bond End.

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.2.9) Sarah Bulkeley 29/8/1649 ?marr Anthony Walsh, Leek 1675 (Walsh is incorrect. Sarah married a ‘Grasier’ of London and living in Essex at the time of Dugdale.)

– – – – (1.4.1.1.3) Catherine Frogatt

– – – – (1.4.1.1.4) Barbara Froggatt = Thomas Bright of Greystones and had 4 daughters (only found 3 – TM)

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.4.1) Ann Bright c1665 = Stephen Bright (2 daughters)

– – – – – – (1.4.1.1.4.1.1) Elizabeth Bright c1688 marr Richard Ashmore

– – – – – – – (1.4.1.1.4.1.1.1) Hannah Ashmore b 21/1/1718marr Thomas Bower 3/4/1739 North Wingfield, Derbyshire

– – – – – – – (1.4.1.1.4.1.1.2) Ann Ashmore b28/5/1714 (sister of Hannah) = William Smith 29/3/1738, North Wingfield, Derbyshire

– – – – – – (1.4.1.1.4.1.2) Mary Bright c1671 = Henry Broomhead in 1689

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.4.2) Barbara dau of Barbara Foggatt b and d in infancy

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.4.3) Daughter of Barbara Frogatt and Thomas Bright 3

– – – – – (1.4.1.1.4.4) Daughter of Barbara Frogatt and Thomas Bright 4

– – – – (1.4.1.1.5) Anne Frogatt

– – – – (1.4.1.1.6) Mary Froggatt b 2/9/1648 Norton, Derby. Aunt of a Mary Frogatt who married Thomas Grundy 4/5/1694 at St Annes, Baslow, Derbyshire. [Too old?TM] *It appears that Mary Froggatt may also have married John Goostrey, Geoffrey Bright of Stavely and a Mr Newham

– – – – (1.4.1.1.7) Priscilla Frogatt

– – – – (1.4.1.1.8) Elizabeth Roberts married a Mr Parker

– – – (1.4.2.) Gertrude Morewood = Jeffrey Roberts

– – – (1.4.3.) Alice Morewood, wife of John Bamford of Pule-hill in the parish of Silkston, esq., a justice of the peace and treasurer for the lame soldiers

– – – (1.4.4.) Elizabeth Morewood, wife of Ralph Greaves

– – – (1.4.5.) Faith Morewood, wife of Reginald Eyre of Maltby co. York

– – –

(1.5) Dorothy Stafford (not substantiated)

Discendenti di Thomasine Kirkham

Clicca qui per visualizzare la linea diretta che riconduce Thomasine Kirkham a Eleonora di Castiglia, madre di Edoardo II, ottenuta dalle ricerche di Kevin McKenzie.

Thomasine (or Susan) Kirkham = Thomas Southcott of Bovy Tracey (who had 3 wives) d. 10 August 1600

(TK.1.) Frances Southcott = Otho Peter of Bowhay/Bowheye) in Devon (2 son named in the will of his uncle John, living 1571, d. 1607. Buried at Edminster. M. I. (Monumental inscription))

– – (TK.1.1.) Elizabeth Peter = James Dawbney of Wayford, then to William Keymer of Penmdoiner, Com. Somerset Sh. (County Somerset)

(TK.2.) Cicily Southcott ” William Peter on 24 sept. 1571 at Bovey Tracey

– – (TK.2.1.) Thomasine Peter, Bap. 31 Oct. 1572 at Bovey Tracey

– – (TK.2.2.) Mary Peter Bap. 16 August 1585 at Torbnam = … Keynes of Sussex

(TK.3.) Ursula Southcott = Robert Hill of Shilston at Bovey Tracey in Oct 1575

– – (TK.3.1) Ursula Hill, living 1629???

– – (TK.3.2.) Amy Hill

– – (TK.3.3.) Agneta Hill

– – (TK.3.4.) Thomasine Hill = Robert Nunne de Felsham in Suffolk, living in 17 oct 1637

– – (TK.3.5.) (Ursula?)Maria Hill = Robert Chichester de Raley in Com. Devon Milit Balnei (Knight of the Bath), remarried Sir Ralph Sydenham???

– – (TK.3.6.) Francisca Hill

– – (TK.3.7.) Elizabeth Hill = John of Carew of Haccombe in Com. Devon, Esq, Living 1620, will 21 sept 1623 Pro 26 June 1626

– – – (TK.3.7.1.) Ursula Carew, named in her father’s will as 14 years old in 1620 = Ellis Restorin at East Allington 22 January 1632-3, Exeter

– – (TK.3.8.) Cecilia Hill = Thomas Ashford of County Devon, 3 February 1620-1, Exeter, named in her father’s will as living in 1629

– – – (TK.3.8.1.) Elizabeth Ayshford = ??? count named in the will of her brother Nicholas, living in 1701

– – – (TK.3.8.2.) Bridget Ayshford of Burlescombe, named in the will of her brother Nicholas, ‘aged and weak’, will of 15 november 1709.

– – – (TK.3.8.3.) Mary Ayshford, baptised 20 May 1620 at St Thomas near Exeter = ??? Manson, named in the will of her brother Nicholas

– – (TK.3.9.) Brigetta (Bridget) Hill = Richard Duxwell of London, Pewtener

(TK.4.) Susanna Southcott (Bap. 10 Jan 1551/2) = Thomas Holford at Bovey Tracey on 3 Dec 1571

– – (TK.4.1.) Mary Holford = Josephe Wyke, April 19, 1611, Exeter

– – (TK.4.2.) Amy Holford = Robert Coker in Devonshire

– – – (TK.4.2.1.) Mary Coker, baptized 1603/4 died April 1636 = Charles Bruen (or Brune) (n.b. Stirnet shows only sons for them)

– – – (TK.4.2.2.) Anne Coker = Thomas Ferrard of Trent (Thomas Gerrard of Trent)

– – – – (TK.4.2.2.1.) Anne Gerard = Sir Francis Windham of Trent (c. 1654-1716) 1st baronet (created 18 november 1673) Entertained Charles II after the battle of Worcester, M. P. for Minehead, Somerset

– – – (TK.4.2.3.) Elizabeth Coker = John Jeffery of Catherston, b.c. 1618 d. 31 september 1643

– – – (TK.4.2.3.) Elizabeth Coker = John Jeffery of Catherston, b.c. 1618 d. 31 september 1643

– – – (TK.4.2.4.) Bridget Coker

– – (TK.4.3.) Susan Holford, unmarried in 1620, married Amias Calmady (incorrectly given as his father Edward) of Wembury June 8, 1621

– – – (TK.4.3.1.) Maria Calmady B. 1623, buried 1627.

– – (TK.4.4.) Barbara Holford

– – (TK.4.5.) Thomasin Holford = Richard Batson, died 1619

(TK.6.) Mary Southcott = William Stroud (Strode) Married 15 July 1581 at Bovey Tracey (Sir William Strode of Newnham, Knt. Adm. to the inner temple 1580 aged 19 years and 5 months 1581, bur. 28 June 1637 at Plympton St. Mary. Will 25 Sept 1636, Pro. 21 Feb 1637-8, Pcc (Lee 18)

– – (TK.6.1.) Mary Strode, died before her husband in Ashton Church, living with issue in 1644 = Sir George Chudleigh at Bovey Tracey

– – – (TK.6.1.1.) Elizabeth Chudleigh = Arthur Ayshford

– – – – (TK.6.1.1.1.) Elizabeth Ayshford = Sir William Hazelwood of Maidwell, Northampton, knighted atWhitehall 9 Oct 1669

– – – – – (TK.6.1.1.1.1.) Elizabeth Hazelwood, died 15 Jan 1732/3, married (as 3rd wife) = Christopher Hatton of Krikby, Northants, 2nd baron Hatton (m. August 1685) (created 29 July 1643. Created 1st Viscount Hatton 17 January 1683, died september 1706)

– – – – – – (TK.6.1.1.1.1.1.) Hon Elizabeth Hatton = ???

– – – – – – (TK.6.1.1.1.1.2.) Hon Penelope Hatton [identity of another child unclear]

– – – (TK.6.1.2.) Maria Chudleigh =Hugh de Clifford of Chudleigh 13 January 1627-8, = 2nd Gregory Cole of Petersham, Slade and Buckishe in 1645 and Maria appears to have died in childbed in 1652 at the birth of the only son Robert. However they did have 3 daughters before.

– – – – (TK.6.1.2.1.) Mary Clifford bapt. 9 January 1628-9 at Chudleigh = Baldwin Acland b.1607 St Olave, Exeter, on 26/10/1652 at Ashton, Devon

– – – – (TK.6.1.2.2.) Jane Cole

– – – – (TK.6.1.2.3.) Mary Cole

– – – – (TK.6.1.2.4.) Elizabeth Cole

– – – (TK.6.1.3.) Dorothy Chudleigh

– – – (TK.6.1.3.) Dorothy Chudleigh

– – (TK.6.2.) Joan Strode = Sir Francis Drake, 1st Baronet, at Buckland Monachorum. [PLEASE NOTE THAT I HAVE PUT THE DAUGHTERS OF JAON STRODE AND SIR FRANCIS DRAKE INTO THE ORDER I PRESUME THEY WERE BORN IN, GIVEN THE INFORMATION AVAILABLE

– – – (TK.6.2.1.) Elizabeth Drake, married 14 February 1638-9 at Bere Ferrers = John Trefusis Junior, of Trefusis, Cornwall

– – – – (TK.6.2.1.1.) Jane Trefusis (alive 1690) = George Ley

– – – – (TK.6.2.1.2.) Sarah Trefusis (alive 1699) =Sidney Blight

– – – – (TK.6.2.1.3.) Dorothy Trefusis (baptized 7 october 1646, died 12 April 1699)

– – – – (TK.6.2.1.4.) Bridget Trefusis (alive 1699)

– – – (TK.6.2.2.) Mary Drake (ancestress of Kevin’s) aged 4 in 1620, baptized 26 Sept 1616, married 28 april 1636 at Buckland Monachorum (Devon) = Elizeus (or Ellis/Elisha) Crymes of Crapstone Barton, Buckland Monachorum, Devon, M. P. for Bere Alston, Lieut.-Col of Plymouth Garrison for the Parliament

– – – – (TK.6.2.2.1.) Joan Crymes, bur. 3 september 1643 at Buckland

– – – – (TK.6.2.2.2.) Mary Crymes, baptized October 1645, married 21 April 1669 at Buckland = John Beale

– – – – (TK.6.2.2.3.) Margaret Crymes, baptized 20 december 1651, married 2 february (or 11 of february?) 1668-9 at Buckland = Joseph Drake of Buckland Monachorum, buried 1 may 1682 at Buckland Monachorum [N.b. the Drake Pedigree shows no female issue, only male issue]

– – – (TK.6.2.3.) Sarah Drake, Baptized 23 October 1629, married 21 February 1650 at Buckland Monachorum, died 1667 = Thomas Trevilian of Yarnscomb, Devon, died 1664, M.I. Carhampton, Somerset.

– – – (TK.6.2.4.) Joan Drake, baptized 22 February 1631, married 4 February 1650 at Buckland Monachorum = Sir Hugh Wyndham of Watchet, Somerset (?Hugh Wyndham of Dunraven Castle?) [They apparently had one son and three daughters]

– – – – (TK.6.2.4.1.) Christobella Wyndham baptised 24/10/1650

– – – – (TK.6.2.4.2.) Mary Wyndham baptised 16/9/1651

– – – – (TK.6.2.4.3.) Arabella Wyndham baptised 27/7/1664 = Amias Bamfield

– – – – – (TK.6.2.4.3.1.) Mary Bamfield

– – – – – (TK.6.2.4.3.2.) Gertrude Bamfield

– – – – (TK.6.2.4.4.) Joanne Wyndham baptised 27/7/1664

– – – – (TK.6.2.4.5.) Elizabeth Wyndham baptised 29/8/1656

– – – – (TK.6.2.4.6.) Sarah Wyndham baptised 5/9/1656

– – – – (TK.6.2.4.7.) Frances Wyndham baptised 9/10/1658

– – (TK.6.3.) Ursula Strode = Sir John Chichester of Hall, Kent – Chichester of Hall pedigree shows only male issue

– – (TK.6.4.) Frances Strode = Sir Samuel Somaster of Painsford, Devon, son and heir of Henry Somaster, at All Hallows Goldsmith Street, Exeter

– – – (TK.6.4.1.) Mary Somaster, married 20 August 1633 at Ashprington = Dr Joseph Martin, LLD, Chancellor of Exeter and Judge of the Court of the Admiralty in Devon

– – – (TK.6.4.2.) Frances Somaster, Buried 18 Jan 1616-17 at Ashprington

– – – (TK.6.4.3.) Sarah Somaster, baptized 10 March 1617-18 at Ashprington, aged 2 in 1620

– – – (TK.6.4.4.) Elizabeth Somaster, baptized 16, buried 24 february 1619-20 at Ashprington

– – – (TK.6.4.5.) Grace Somaster baptized 8 August 1621 at Ashprington

– – (TK.6.5.) Julian Strode = Sir John Davey

– – – (TK.6.5.1.) Mary Davey, baptized 25 March 1611-12, married 1 January 1634-5 at Sandford to John Willoughbie

– – – (TK.6.5.2.) Elizabeth Davey, baptized 24 September 1618, married 9 April 1642 at Sandford = Arthur Copleston of Bowden

– – – – (TK.6.5.2.1.) Mary Coplestone (baptized c. 1648)

– – – – (TK.6.5.2.2.) Julian Coplestone, died 1681

– – – (TK.6.5.3.) Julyan Davey Baptized 1 January 1622-3, married 5 July 1648 at Sandford = Thomas Beare

– – – – (TK.6.5.3.1.) Juliana Beare/Bere b 1654. Juliana = George Musgrove 1670

– – – – – (TK.6.5.3.1.1.). Juliana Musgrave = James Keigwin b1672 d1710

– – – – – – (TK. 6.5.3.1.1.1.) Juliana Keigwin b1696-d1741 = Thomas Clutterbuck Male issue only

– – – – – (TK.6.5.3.1.2.) Margaret Musgrove b1699 = Christopher Davies Only male issue

– – – – – (TK.6.5.3.1.3.) Sarah Musgrove b1700 d 1734 ? died unmarried

– – – – – (TK.6.5.3.1.4.) Mary Musgrove b 1701 = William John

– – – – – (TK.6.5.3.1.5.) Rachel Musgrove b1704 = Thomas Roberts

– – – – – (TK.6.5.3.1.7.) Dorothy Musgrove b1702 = John Borlase

– – – – (TK. 6.5.3.2.) Mary Beare/Bere b 01/02/1661

– – – (TK.6.5.4.) Margaret Davey Baptized 20 May 1627, married 25 February 1649-50 at Sandford = Richard Beavis

– – (TK.6.6.) Margaret Strode = Sir John Yonge of Stetacombe, living with issue in 1644

– – – (TK.6.6.1.) Jane Yonge = Sir John Drake of Ashe

– – – – (TK.6.6.1.1.) Elizabeth Drake, baptized 5 January, 1648-9, married Sir John Briscoe of Boughton, Northants, died at Boughton 9, buried 17, november 1694 at Musbury, aged 46, (without issue?)

– – – (TK.6.6.2.) Mary Yonge, baptized 4 March, 1625-6, buried 8 may 1641 at Colyton

– – – (TK.6.6.3.) Elizabeth Yonge, married 1656 at Colytan = Thomas Hudges of Shipton Moigne, Gloucestershire, living in 1663)

– – – (TK.6.6.4.) Sarah Yonge, buried 11 June 1641 at Colyton

– – (TK.6.7.) Elizabeth Strode = Edmond Specott of Anderdon (Specott pedigree shows only male issue)

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The Hunt for the King 37) New facts about William de Norwell’s Wardrobe Account of 1338

It has long been known that one of the pieces of evidence indicating that Edward II might have lived after September 21st, 1327, consists of two entries in William de Norwell’s Wardrobe Account dated 1338. William de Norwell was the clerk in charge of King Edward III’s Wardrobe, and drew up a detailed account book for the period July 12th, 1338, to May 27th, 1340. The two entries that may indicate Edward II’s survival are contained in this book, and both refer to a man called ‘William le Galeys’ who ‘called himself the father of the king’. This means, he was saying he was the father of King Edward III, in other words, he was claiming to be Edward II, more than ten years after his supposed death.
The Auramala Project has finally managed to take a closer look at these two entries, thanks to the help of Kevin McKenzie, who has already made several valuable contributions to the Project in terms of genealogy and historical research. Kevin very kindly took the time and trouble to go to the British National Archives Kew and personally photograph the relevant pages of William de Norwell’s Wardrobe Account book. Why was this necessary? The Wardrobe Accounts in question were transcribed and published in 1983 by Mary Lyon, Bryce Lyon, Henry S. Lucas and with the contribution of Jean de Sturler. However, if I only had a euro for every time Stefano Castagneto has said to me “Don’t trust transcriptions, always go back to the original document!”, I would be a rich man. So we went back to the original document, and it paid off, as you will see below.
The two entries are within a section of the accounts headed:
INCIPIUNT PARTICULE EXPENSARUM FORINSECARUM FACTARUM IN GARDEROBA DOMINI EDWARDI REGIS ANGLIE ET FRANCIE INTER XI DIEM JULI ANNO REGNI SUI ANGLIE XII ET XXVIII DIEM MAII ANNO REGNI SUI ANGLIE XIIII ET FRANCIE PRIMO UT IN ELEMOSINIS, NECESSARIIS, DONIS, NUNCIIS, FEODIS, ROBIS, RESTAURO EQUORUM, VADIIS HOMINUM AD ARMA, SAGITTARIORUM ET NAUTARUM ET PASSAGGIO EQUORUM.
Translated, this means:
Here begin details of outgoing expenses made in the Wardrobe of Lord Edward, King of England and France, between July 11, the twelfth year of his reign as King of England (1338), and May 28th, the fourteenth year of his reign as King of England and France, firstly for charity, necessities, gifts, ambassadors, fiefs, clothes, care for horses, passage of men-at-arms, archers and mariners, and passage of horses.
The first entry that mentions William le Galeys is on folio 89 verso:
Francisco Lumbard servienti domini regis ad arma pro tot denariis per ipsum solutis pro expensis Willelmi le Glaeys qui asserit se patrem domini regis nunc nuper arestati apud Coloniam et per ipsum Franciscum apud regem sic ducti usque Confluenciam per manus proprias, 25 s. 6 d.
Tranlsated:
To Francis Lombard sergeant-at-arms of the lord king for the same amount of money spent by (means of) him for the expenses of William le Galeys who declared himself the father of the lord king and so/then recently stopped near Cologne and by (means of) him, Francis, taken thus to the king at Koblenz by own hands, 25 s. 6d.
The second entry that mentions William le Galeys is on folio 90 recto:
Francekino Forcet pro denariis per ispum receptis pro expensis Willelmi Galeys in custodia sua existentis quia nominavit se regem Angliae patrem regis nunc (videlicet per tres septimanas mense Octobris dicto anno xii) per manus proprias ibidem xviii die Octobris, 13 s. 6 d.
Translated:
To Francekino Forcet for money by means of him received for the expensis of William Galeys being in his custody because he called himself king of England father of the king (as is evident for three weeks in the month of October of the said year xii [1338]) by own hands the 18th day of October, 13 s. 6 d.
In both entries the term ‘manus proprias – by own hands‘ almost certainly means directly from William de Norwell, the writer of the accounts.

Discussion

koblenz_braun_hogenberg-jpeg
Koblenz in 1572, from Wikimedia commons. Did Edward III meet his father here in 1338?
ENTRY ONE
This entry is not dated, but refers to the time in which King Edward III was in Koblenz. The itinerary of Edward III as published by Mark Ormrod in his 2012 biography of that king, shows that Edward III was in Koblenz from September 1 to September 6, 1338, and so the event must have occurred in that time bracket. The entry refers to a Francis Lombard, who was a sergeant-at-arms of King Edward III. The word ‘Lombard’ most likely refers to his geographical place of origin. In the 14th century all of northern Italy was generically referred to as ‘Lombardy’ (though even as far south as Tuscany was sometimes referred to as ‘Lombardy’ in this period, for example by Dante). Francis Lombard spent 25 s. and 6 d. for the expenses of a certain William Galleys, who declared himself to be the father of the king (thus, he declared himself to be Edward II) and so, or and then (the Latin word nunc may mean either) was stopped. The word arestare may seem to mean ‘arrest’, but in fact it is an invention of medieval Latin and literally means to stop. However, we will be looking for other instances of the verb in Norwell’s account in order to confirm that the meaning is, indeed, to stop and not something else. Therefore, the Francis Lombard, probably Italian, stopped William Galeys near Cologne, and took him to King Edward III near Koblenz sometime between September 1 and September 6. William Galeys’ expenses amounted to 25 s. and 6d. A sergeant-at-arms like Francis normally received a daily wage of 12 s, to put this in proportion. The same amount of money was given to Francis Lombard. This logically indicates that Francis Lombard paid William Galeys’ expenses himself, perhaps for a two or three days, and was then reimbursed by William Norwell. When William Norwell asserts that he reimbursed Francis Lombard ‘by his own hands’, it means we can be sure this is a first-hand account of someone who actually met Francis Lombard, and was therefore in a position to verify that which he later wrote down.
ENTRY TWO
This entry is dated October 13, 1338, so more than one month after the previous entry. This time, a smaller sum of money, 13 s and 6 d, is being given to a Francekino Forcet. Francekino seems to be a diminutive of Franciscus, the Latin for Francis. This is a version of the same given name used in the first entry, though Francis was an extremely common name, and this does not necessarily mean they were the same person. There is also a surname here, Forcet, which may very well be an alternative spelling of Forcetti/Forzetti. Four men with this name were involved with the Florentine banking firms of the Bardi (Dino Forzetti) and the Peruzzi (Francesco Forzetti and his two sons, Giovanni and Andrea. Dino Forzetti was a Bardi agent in England, and Andrea Forzetti was a Peruzzi agent in England. We cannot be sure, but it is possible that Francekino Forcet was the same man as Francesco Forzetti, who was a partner in the Peruzzi banking firm. Both the Bardi and the Peruzzi banking firms were heavily involved in lending very large sums of money to Edward III in this period. (1)
This time, money is being given to Francekino Forcet for another sum of money (it is not specified how much), received by means of him, for the expenses of William Galeys. Concerning this, it is necessary to specify that the Latin tex is per ipsum – ‘by means of him’. The sum of money was received by means of him. It is important to distinguish this from ‘by him’ – which would imply that it was Francekino Forcet himself who received the money. This is not that case, in Latin that would be ab ipso, not per ipsum. The construction per ipsum receptis literally means received by means of him, or through him. This means he was not receiving the money personally, he was the agent by which the money was received. So who did receive the money? Given the context of the Wardrobe Accounts, we may conclude that the Wardrobe (thus, King Edward III) received the money, by means of/through Francekino Forcet. Similarly, in the first entry, the expenses of William Galeys were paid by means of/through Francis Lombard, not by him personally, and in fact he was reimbursed by the Wardrobe. So, Francis Lombard was the agent by which those expenses were paid. If the Wardrobe received money  by means of Francekino Forcet, this may add weight to the speculation that he was indeed Francesco Forzetti: given that Forzetti was a banker, working for a form that regularly lent money to King Edward III
The money received by means of Francekino Forcet was for the expenses of William Galeys, who was in Forcet’s custody for three weeks in the month of October, 1338. The published transcription mistakenly writes ‘December’, but this is incorrect: we have verified with the original, and indeed this and all other entries before and after it on the page refer to October, not December. Therefore, according to this entry, William Galeys was in the custody of Forcet for three weeks in October, because (quia) he said he was the king of England, father of the king). This second entry is very specific: William Galeys was claiming to be Edward II, and because of this, he was in the custody of Francekino Forcet for three weeks in October 1338, for which expenses the Wardrobe received money through Forcet himself. It seems, effectively, to be saying that this payment of 13 s. 6d. is payment to Forcet for his services in organising money for the Wardrobe, to cover the expenses of William Galeys.
You certainly do not pay a person for receiving money himself. That makes no sense.
But you certainly do pay a person if you receive money through him – a service that is typical of bankers.
I believe that this new analysis of the two entries of William de Norwell’s Wardrobe Book that mention William Galeys strengthens the hypothesis that Francekino Forcet was, indeed, the partner of the Peruzzi banking firm, Francesco Forzetti.
Ian Mortimer in his book Medieval Intrigue (2010) pointed out the links between Edward III and the Florentine bankers, the Bardi and the Peruzzi, and pointed out the possible connection with Francekino Forcet. Mortimer put forward the hypothesis that these links may lie at the heart of mystery of William Galeys/Edward II. I believe that the present analysis and its conclusions concerning Francekino Forcet support that general hypothesis.
Ivan Fowler
[I want to thank both Kevin McKenzie and Kathryn Warner for the long discussions held with them, debating the meaning of these two entries.]
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(1) Information on the Dino, Francesco, Giovanni and Andrea Forzetti is available in Ian Mortimer’s Medieval Intrigue, 2010, and in publications by Armando Sapori, including Storia interna della compagnia mercantile dei Peruzzi, Florence, 1935

Tracing Edward II’s links with the Fieschi and Malaspina: from Bazas to Oramala – Bernard Grimward, a wine merchant and money-lender to the King

by Kevin McKenzie

Today we are proud to publish a major new post by Kevin McKenzie, who has been making invaluable contributions to The Auramala Project over the last year. A wizard in genealogy and heraldry – a field of study that none of us at the Project knew anything about at all until Kevin enlightened us – he has helped us bring the family tree of Eleanor of Castile’s matrilineal descendants up to the 18th generation, and has applied formidable reasoning to many problems involving inter-family relations that have perplexed us for some time. Such as, for example, the question of Cardinal Luca Fieschi’s parentage, but more on that in another post. Here is his superb work on a totally unexpected connection between Edward II and the Genoese. Ed.

As a descendant of Edward II (many times over), of Hugh Despenser the Younger and of Thomas Lord Berkeley, when I came across the work of the Auramala Project I found it to be an imaginatively put together, utterly compelling and meticulously sourced piece of research, and the Project’s subject matter particularly appealed to me for these obvious personal reasons. (Because I am both a lawyer by profession and an amateur historian – who perhaps because of my training is never inclined to accept received wisdom unquestioningly or without careful verification in the primary sources – I also found the Project’s research methodology extremely attractive). Of course, if we look sufficiently diligently, it is inevitable that many of us in Britain will find these same individuals within their large pool of mediaeval ancestors (the statistical likelihood is that more than 99% of indigenous Britons descend from King Edward III), and it was only whilst carrying out genealogical research into another of my (at first sight less distinguished and to me therefore more interesting) family lines that I stumbled across information which I thought might prove a useful contribution to the Project. This was in fact basically a spin-off from my research into the ancestry of my great great great grandfather, Thomas Macdonough Grimwood, a grocer and law clerk, born in late 1817 in Sudbury in Suffolk.

Thomas’s father, Captain Joseph Grimwood (brother to a Suffolk rector and cousin of an admiral friend of Lady Nelson whose sister was an early gothic novelist), was a timber merchant and tea dealer who, having brought the family to London by the mid-1830s, seems soon to have ended up, after losing an Admiralty case relating to the enforceability of a guarantee of the cost of repairs to his ship (which had been wrecked on a voyage to Tasmania), in a debtor’s prison (probably the Marshalsea). By the early 1840s, Thomas and his younger brother were living close to the Marshalsea and appear to have become law clerks with the purpose of trying to rescue their father, but by 1842 their mother, the daughter of a wealthy packet captain (who in 1814 had helped restore the Bourbon monarchy by making a special voyage to return Louis XVI’s exiled brother Charles to the Continent so as to rule pending the return of the gout-ridden Louis XVIII, and who had funded Thomas’s clothing and education by means of a trust of monies which he had loaned to the poet Wordsworth’s cousin), was already in the Shoreditch workhouse. Their father, when at some point he left the prison, was living in the nearby squalid Mint Street, showing up in the 1851 census as a “waste paper dealer”; one brother Cornelius was to die of cholera; and Thomas himself, now a “dock porter”, was to die the next year, 1852, aged only 34, of tuberculosis.

But to see the relevance of Thomas’s family history to the Auramala Project we must leap back a few centuries, to the early 14th Century, and look at a member of the family who ironically was not an imprisoned debtor, but a money-lender – to the King.

It was in the Gascon Roll “for the 13th year of the reign of Edward, son of King Edward” [ie the 13th year of the reign of Edward II], when researching the likely mediaeval progenitors of Thomas’s Grimwood family ancestors, that I happened to stumble upon the following record (footnote 1):

For Bertrand de Mur and other merchants

 28 January, Westminster

Grant to the merchants of Gascony to whom the King is bound for wine bought in 1318 and 1319 …

 The King was lately bound to the merchants of Gascony in the sum of 1545 l 18 s 3 d st, for wine bought to his use by Stephen de Abingdon, his butler in August 1318, whereof he is still bound to … [there then follows a list of names which includes:] to Johan de Latour and Bernat Grimoard in 72 l of 90 l …”.

Elsewhere, in fact in the National Archives at Kew, I found the same Bernat Grimoard – or Bernard Grimward – described in the contemporary records as “an alien merchant of Lincoln” who hailed from “Besace” or “Besaz”, Gascony. This latter is clearly Bazas, near Bordeaux. These are the entries from their catalogue:

C 241/6/43

Debtor: Godfrey Francis, burgess of Lynn [Freebridge Hundred], of Norfolk. Creditor: Bertram Markeys, merchant of Bordeaux, Bernard Grimward, merchant of Besace [of Gascony] Amount: £6 14s. Before whom: Ralph de Gayton, Mayor of Lincoln; Adam Fitz-Martin, Clerk. 1286 Sep 30

C 241/7/51

Debtor: Godfrey Francis, burgess of Lynn [Freebridge Hundred], of Norfolk. Creditor: Bertram Markeys, merchant of Bordeaux, Bernard Grimward. Amount: £13 8s. Before whom: Ralph de Gayton, Mayor of Lincoln; Adam Fitz-Martin of Lincoln, Clerk. First term: 29/09/1286 Last term: 24/06/1287 Writ to: Sheriff of Norfolk Sent by: Henry Gopil, Mayor of Lincoln; Adam Fitz-Martin of Lincoln, Clerk. 1287 Jul 17

C 241/46/234

Debtor: Robert de Walsham, burgess [merchant] of Lynn [Freebridge Hundred], of Norfolk. Creditor: Bernard Grimward, and Arnold de Puges, merchants of Besaz [Gascony; Alien merchants in Lincoln] Amount: £16. Before whom: Stephen de Stanham, Mayor of Lincoln; Adam Fitz-Martin, Clerk. 1305 Aug 2

SC 8/317/E289

Petitioners: Bernard de Mure, merchant vintner of Gascony; Bartholomew de la Roke, merchant vintner of Gascony; Arnold de Luk, merchant vintner of Gascony; Bernard Grimward, merchant vintner of Gascony; Gaillard de Sesson, merchant vintner of Gascony; Guillaume Bondel, merchant vintner of Gascony; Garsi de la Vynon, merchant vintner of Gascony; Arnold de Castillon, merchant vintner of Gascony; Pierre de Mountlaryn, merchant vintner of Gascony; Arnold de la Vye, merchant vintner of Gascony; Guillaume de Byk, merchant vintner of Gascony; Simon de Meot, merchant vintner of Gascony; Guillaume de Ford, merchant vintner of Gascony; John de Poitau, merchant vintner of Gascony.

Intrigued by the clear suggestion that one of the earliest known individuals possessing an obvious variant of the surname Grimwood had emanated from Gascony, I then turned to further possible clues, both as to Bernard’s origins and his possible connection to the Grimwood family. Part of this detective work led me to Rietstap’s Armorial in the British Library. It soon transpired from this that the coat of arms of the family of Grimal, of Guyenne, Gascony, shows not only in chief the three silver stars on blue of the Grimwood family but also the black imperial or Hohenstaufen eagle displayed of the Grimaldi. Guyenne corresponds to the archbishopric of Bordeaux and included the Bazadais, the territory of Bazas – where Bernard Grimoard, Edward II’s wine merchant based in Lincoln was “of”.  Bernard is the German version of the Italian Bernabo and it immediately then struck me that Grimal/Grimald is in fact the surname as originally used by the Grimaldi dynasty, the name Grimaldi simply being the genitive form, so as to denote “of the dynasty of Grimal(d)”.

Grimwood1
From Rietstap’s Armorial: the arms of Grimal of Guyenne, Gascony.
Famille de Grimal

D’argent, à l’aigle éployée de sable, au chef d’azur chargé de trois étoiles du champ.

Origine : Guyenne et Gascogne

Famille de Grimal de La Bessière

D’argent, au lévrier de sable, au chef d’azur, chargé d’un croissant d’argent entre deux étoiles d’or.

Origine : Rouergue et Languedoc

Grimwood2

As can be seen, the Sicilian branch of the Grimaldi quarter their arms with the black imperial eagle, which features on a number of versions of Grimaldi, Grimm and Grimal arms which also use the same silver and blue and colours as the Grimwood arms.  And here I found another apparent coincidence: what has been described by the family as a martlet appears, holding an oak leaf in its beak, as part of the family crest embossed on the silverware of George Augustus Macdonough Grimwood (first cousin of Thomas Macdonough Grimwood) and his wife Betsy Maria Garrett (herself a first cousin of Dame Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, the first female doctor, and of Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett, the early pioneer of women’s suffrage).

Grimwood3
George Augustus Grimwood (1826 – 1883), of Shern Hall, first cousin of the writer’s great great great grandfather Thomas Macdonough Grimwood.

The coat of arms of the family of Grimal of Guyenne, as can be seen, contains three silver mullets (or stars) on a chief made up of a blue background. This is just like those of the Grimwood coat of arms as registered by a branch of the family (that of Jeffrey Grimwood Grimwood) at the College of Arms in 1851 – but clearly long held prior to that, because I found an unquartered version of the same Grimwood arms in the earliest edition of Burke’s General Armory, dating from 1842 and thus well before this registration – and George Augustus Grimwood who was only an extremely distant cousin of Jeffrey, with their most recent common ancestor living in no later than the 16th or 17th Century, bore the same motto as him of “Auxilio Divino“.  This translates as by divine assistance. An alternative translation is “Deo Juvante”, which is the Grimaldi motto. It occurred to me therefore that a black bird, originally intended to depict a black eagle, could easily, over many centuries, have been corrupted into a “martlet”. As if this were not coincidence enough, I then found that the collar of the Monagasque Order of St Charles which surrounds the coat of arms of the Grimaldi Princes of Monaco is made up of oak leaves, and that the mantling of their arms is of ermine, which mirrors that used for the tincture, or heraldic colour, of the bend which appears in the first and fourth Grimwood quarters of the coat of arms, as registered in 1851, of Jeffrey Grimwood Grimwood.

Grimwood4
The arms of the family of Grimaldi, Princes of Monaco. The collar of the Monagasque Order of St Charles is interspersed with oak leaves, the mantling is of ermine and the motto Deo Juvante is an alternative latin translation of the Grimwoo family motto of Auxilio Divinio – “with God’s help/with divine assistance”. (The two supporters are a reference to the tale of Francesco Grimaldi and his faction, who took the castle of Monaco disguised as friards in 1297).
Grimwood5
The Grimwood family crest (copied from Two Hundred Years of the Grimwood Family Tree, by Adrian Grimwood (footnote 2) as it appears – along with the motto Auxilio Divino – on a silver tablespoon datin gfrom 1856 of George Augustus Grimwood. The bird (a version of the black eagle displayed of the family of Grimal or Grimaldi?) rests ona  tower (the silver tower fo the family de la Tour du Pin?) and holds in its mouth an oak leaf ( the collar badge of the Grimaldi Princes of Monaco?).

It also seems clear that the 1851 registration was a registration of quartered arms with one quarter termed “Grimwood” – thus implying these latter arms already existed prior to 1851.  Over ten years ago, when first researching my grandmother’s Grimwood family ancestry, a visit by me to the College of Arms and discussions with both the College’s archivist and Richmond Herald confirmed that the College does not possess any extant record of these arms as existing before 1851. However this is not surprising, since the College’s foundation only dates from the reign of Richard III and that it would inevitably have no record of arms more ancient than that unless subsequently registered there. The existence of an armorial record for a similar version of the arms of Grimwood in the 1842 edition of Burke’s General Armory and the fact of the individual quarterings which formed part of Jeffrey’s arms as registered in 1851 being styled in their registration as for “Grimwood” act as further confirmation.

Grimwood6
The arms of Jeffrey Grimwod Grimwood (formerly known as Jeffrey Grimwood Cozens) (1827-1909), of Woodham Mortimer, as registered in 1851 at the College of Arms, the first and fourth quarters of wich (for Grimwood) show in chief the three silver stars on blue of the family of Grimal of Guyenne, Gascony, and on a bend the ermine which appears in the mantling on the arms of the Grimaldi Princes of Monaco.

GRIMWOOD (R.L., 1851). Quarterly, 1 and 4, azure, a chevron engrailed ermine between three mullets in chief and a saltire couped in base argent (for Grimwood) ; 2 and 3, or, on a chevron gules, between three wolves’ heads erased sable, as many oval buckles of the first. Mantling: azure and argent; Crests – 1. upon a wreath of the colours, a demi-wolf rampant, collared, holding between the paws a saltire; 2. upon a wreath of the colours, a lion’s gamb erased and erect sable, charged with a cross crosslet argent, and holding in the paw a buckle or. Motto – “Auxilio divino.” Son of Jeffrey Grimwood Grimwood, Esq., J. P.

The black eagle “displayed” features in many versions of the Grimaldi coat of arms.  It is often shown as on a gold background and so may (as it often does when borne on a chief in Italian arms (footnote 3)) indicate Ghibelline (imperial) allegiance (contrary to the general support of the Grimaldi family – like the Fieschi – for the opposing Guelph (papal) faction – but some families were divided and the Doria for instance, who intermarried, were Ghibelline) or instead perhaps a marriage to an heiress with a descent from the Hohenstaufen emperors – which would exist for instance with any descent from Catarina da Marano. Catarina was an illegitimate daughter of the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick II and wife of Giacomo del Carretto whose daughters Aurelia and Salvatica married Lanfranco and Rainier I Grimaldi respectively. Brumisan their sister married Ugo Fieschi and there appears to have been another sister who (as the Auramala Project shows elsewhere) was likely to have been Leonora the wife of Niccolo Fieschi – mother of Cardinal Luca Fieschi and grandmother of Niccolo Malaspina (“il Marchesotto”) of Oramala and his brother Bernabo with his connection to Bordeaux and Bazas.

Because of the similarity in terms of both names and their respective dates, and the heraldry, I had long supposed that this Bernard Grimward could be identical to Bernabo (or Barnaba) Grimaldi (fl. late 13th/early 14th Century) son of Lucchetto Grimaldi and progenitor of the Grimaldi lords of Beuil/Boglio.  And I had already noted that Lucchetto’s brother Lanfranco Grimaldi married Aurelia del Carretto, a sister of Brumisan del Carretto – who appears (as is shown elsewhere by the Auramala Project) to have been the likely sister of Leonora, Cardinal Luca Fieschi’s mother.

Ian Mortimer, Ivan Fowler and Kathryn Warner’s ground-breaking research regarding the international connections of these prominent Italian families to Edward’s court now make our latter suggested identification of Leonora an even stronger possibility. Of course many of these people would have been wearing different hats and thus have been described in different ways in different contexts according to the purpose of any particular contemporary record. Thus it would seem we have Bernabo Grimaldi appearing in the Italian records as lord of Beuil or Boglio, as most likely the same person – or at least closely related to – the Bernat Grimoard (or Bernard Grimward) but who later (apparently first recorded in English records in 1286, thus some time considerably after the Grimaldi family’s flight from Genoa in 1271) crops up in the contemporary English records as Edward’s wine merchant and money-lender, trading between Lincoln and Bazas near Bordeaux – and apparently as progenitor or one of the earliest members of a family who established a line of descendants there, that of Grimal of Guyenne, and of a line descendants in East Anglia, the family of Grimwood.

When sharing this genealogical research with Ivan and Kathryn, in order to assist as part of our research to determine precisely how Cardinal Luca Fieschi’s mother Leonora’s family background could have made him a kinsman of Edward – and more particularly upon my sharing the fact that Bordeaux, a city so close to Bazas, appeared on Ivan’s map tracing the Europe-wide influence of the Fieschi against Edward’s travels as noted in the Fieschi Letter – Ivan then gave me an amazing piece of information. He told me that the individual who named Manuele Fieschi executor for his canonry in the diocese of Bordeaux was none other than Bernabò Malaspina, son of Niccolò Marquess of Oramala and Fiesca Fieschi. The canonry was conferred on 24th June 1335; the last executor was the abbot of Saint Croix of Bordeaux and another executor was the bishop of Bazas (Ep.o Vasat. = Episcopo Vasatensis = Bishop of Bazas).

The connection between Bernabo Malaspina and Bazas, and hence to Bernard Grimward, Edward’s wine merchant, was an “eureka moment” because not only do we have the name Bernabo (aka Bernard) cropping up here again (itself indicative of a possible relationship through family naming traditions), but also it is a known fact that Bernabo Malaspina’s mother was Fiesca Fieschi – a sister of Cardinal Luca Fieschi, the very man whose mother Leonora appears through independent research to have been the sister of Brumisan del Carretto. And Bernabo Malaspina would have been the great nephew of Lanfranco Grimaldi, who on the above basis was Bernabo Grimaldi’s uncle.

As Ian Mortimer writes, setting out here a tentative reconstruction of Edward II in Fieschi custody to the end of 1335: “After arrival in Avignon, he passed into the guardianship of his kinsman, Cardinal Fieschi, who sent him by way of Paris and Brabant … to Cologne … and then to Milan (ruled by Azzo Visconti, nephew of Luca’s niece, Isabella Fieschi). From there he was taken to a hermitage near Milasci, possibly Mulasco, where he would have been under the political authority of one of Cardinal Fieschi’s two nephews in the region, either Niccolo Malaspina at Filattiera or Manfredo Malaspina at Mulazzo itself, and the ecclesiastical authority of another nephew, Bernabo Malaspina, bishop of Luni. However, in 1334 troops began to gather for an attack on Pontremoli, which came under siege in 1335, hence the ex-king’s removal to the hermitage of Sant’Alberto, between Cecima and Oramala, an area also under the political influence of Niccolo Malaspina. The bishop for the area – the bishop of Tortona – was Percevalle Fieschi, another member of Cardinal Fieschi’s extensive family”.

And as an eureka moment the implications of this are threefold. Not only did the Grimward/Bazas/Malaspina/Fieschi connection (a) corroborate my own research based on heraldry which directly linked the family of Grimwood to that of the Grimaldi, but this would also (b) lend further support to the identification of Cardinal Luca Fieschi’s mother Leonora as being of the family of del Carretto – and thus explain how Cardinal Luca Fieschi was a king’s kinsman – and (c) explain why Bernard Grimoard/Bernabo Grimaldi was acting as a wine merchant to and lending money to Edward II (footnote 4). 

The fact that they were joint creditors for a single debt shows very clearly that Johan de Latour and Bernard Grimoard were partners as merchants, and this Johan de Latour must clearly be a younger son of the family of the Barons de la Tour du Pin. There is also another version of the Grimal of Guyenne coat of arms which appears in Riestap’s Armorial which displays the pine tree of the family of de la Tour du Pin.  “Johan Delatour” appears as a fellow wine merchant in conjunction with Bernard Grimoard in the contemporary record.  According to The Foundation for Medieval Genealogy‘s pedigree for the Fieschi, a likely unnamed sister of Ugo Fieschi (with his del Carretto wife Brumisan) and Niccolo Fieschi (with his presumed del Carretto wife Leonora) married Albert, Sire de la Tour du Pin: Matthew Paris records that Pope Innocent IV arranged the marriage of his niece to “domino de Tur de Pin” in 1251 and that he accepted his bride “non ratione personæ muliebris, sed pecuniæ eam concomitantis”.

If he is not to be identified as a member of the family of Grimaldi, it seems unlikely to be coincidence therefore that Bernat Grimoard is mentioned in a contemporary record in direct conjunction with a fellow wine merchant named “Johan Delatour”.

As well as their having the same motto as the Grimaldi, and as part of the crest above their coat of arms a black bird which matches the black eagle also used by the Grimaldi, the tower in the de la Tour du Pin coat of arms appears as part of this same crest of the Grimwood family which I have deduced to descend from Bernard Grimward or a near relative of his.  So there could well have been marriage to a de la Tour du Pin heiress at some point. Whatever the position, the latter family was clearly allied by marriage in around the mid to late 13th Century with both Bernard the wine merchant’s family and the Fieschi. As we have seen, part of George Augustus Grimwood’s crest was a silver tower – which matches the tower which also appears in the arms of the de la Tour du Pin – surmounted by the black bird holding an oak leaf in its beak, along with the motto “Auxilio Divino”. So this too further corroborates the heraldic evidence both of Bernard being the Grimwood ancestor and of his likely place on the Grimaldi tree – in order for him to have been a de la Tour du Pin cousin – as a younger son of Giacomo Grimaldi and Catarina Fieschi.

The use of the black imperial eagle by the Grimaldi in the various versions of their arms which I have found might perhaps have been part of a later attempt to reconcile with the Ghibelline faction (and I also note that support for the Guelph faction and the Ghibelline faction was apparently not a rigid divide), or it could simply have denoted a descent from the Hohenstaufen via an heiress – such as via Catarina da Marano, the wife of Giacomo del Carretto, who was an illegitimate daughter of the Emperor Frederick II.

In fact Bernat Grimoard, the wine merchant to Edward II, or his father, may well have left Genoa for Bazas and thus appeared in the latter place at the time of the Grimaldi exodus from Genoa.  The timing of the banning of the Guelph faction from Genoa (1271) and their seeking refuge in territories outside Italy which were allied with the papacy would fit perfectly.  And the fact that Bazas had connections with Bernabo Malaspina and Manuele Fieschi – who were part of the similarly Guelph-supporting Fieschi family which was allied by marriage with the Grimaldi – would also fit perfectly. The general political history of the Grimaldi is well-known. As a ready precis, here is an extract from their Wikipedia entry:

“The Grimaldis feared that the head of a rival Genoese family could break the fragile balance of power in a political coup and become lord of Genoa, as had happened in other Italian cities. They entered into a Guelphic alliance with the Fieschi family and defended their interests with the sword. The Guelfs however were banned from the City in 1271, and found refuge in their castles in Liguria and Provence. They signed a treaty with Charles of Anjou, King of Naples and Count of Provence to retake control of Genoa, and generally to provide mutual assistance. In 1276, they accepted a peace under the auspices of the Pope, which however did not put an end to the civil war. Not all the Grimaldis chose to return to Genoa, as they preferred to settle in their fiefdoms, where they could raise armies.

In 1299, the Grimaldis and their close family the Grosscurth’s [sic] launched a few galleys to attack the port of Genoa before taking refuge on the Western Riviera. During the following years, the Grimaldis entered into different alliances that would allow them to return to power in Genoa. This time, it was the turn of their rivals, the Spinola family, to be exiled from the city. During this period, both the Guelphs and Ghibellines took and abandoned the castle of Monaco, which was ideally located to launch political and military operations against Genoa. Therefore, the tale of Francis Grimaldi and his faction – who took the castle of Monaco disguised as friars in 1297 – is largely anecdotal.”

However, none of the Grimaldi family’s specific, personal political connections during this period appear to have been investigated by historians until now; in the Summer of Britain’s referendum on membership of the European Union, we would do well to remember the inter-European nature of politics and culture even at this early date, inter-European connections as outlined in this article which could clearly not have been invented by the writer of the Fieschi Letter; and it is surely only if it is to be read in total isolation from these and other new finds that the Fieschi Letter can reasonably be dismissed as a forgery or (as some have suggested in the light of the compelling evidence which indicates the contrary) else as a rather crude (and unexplained) attempt at falsification and blackmail.

  1. A complete copy of this record can be found online in the Gascon Rolls Project.
  1. This silverware belongs to Adrian Grimwood, who lives in Kenya, is a distant cousin of mine and is a direct descendant of George Augustus Grimwood.

  1. Guelph allegiance was often indicated instead by having in chief three gold fleur de lis on a blue background.

  1. The Lincoln connection is also interesting in the light of Manuele Fieschi’s connection to that city too – although it could of course simply be that a supplier of wine to the King being based there was inevitable as it was an important centre of Edward’s court. Indeed, it was on 23rd September 1327, when he was at Lincoln, that Edward III received a letter from Lord Berkeley stating that Edward II had died on 21st September at Berkeley Castle.

The Hunt for the King 30) Was the Fiecshi Letter Written by a Lawyer?

The real, historical Manuele Fieschi, was a papal notary. This means he was a professional lawyer in an extremely prestigious position, responsible for producing documents – both ecclesiastic and diplomatic in nature – for the Pope himself. In other words, a highly trained legal professional, carrying enormous responsibility.

Some historians have argued that the Fieschi Letter was not actually written by the real, historical Manuele Fieschi. Foremost among these is Roy Martin Haines, in his 2003 book King Edward II: Edward of Caernarfon, his life, his reign, and its aftermath, 1284–1330. He comments that the Fieschi Letter looks like part of a wider attempt to establish a cult of sainthood for the dead Edward II, and that “Its attribution to Fieschi is conceivably yet another carefully contrived circumstantial detail. […] Fieschi’s name may have been ‘borrowed’ to lend authenticity to the whole affair.” (Pg238) Haines does not stop there: he justifies his claim that the Fieschi Letter was not written by Manuele on the grounds that the style of writing does not seem to be consistent with the profession of Manuele Fieschi – a papal notary.

Part of Haines’s argument is linguistic in nature, and we will come back to that in later posts. We will also come back to the question of whether or not the Letter may have been part of an attempt to sanctify Edward II. For the moment, lets focus on the underlying question: is Fieschi Letter the work of Manuele Fieschi? Is it plausibly the work of a papal notary?

Firstly, it must be said that most historians looking at this issue do not question that Manuele Fieschi was the true author of the Letter. For example, Seymour Phillips in his 2010 biography Edward II believed that Fiecshi wrote the Letter, but was deceived in doing so by an impostor claiming to be Edward II. Mark Ormrod does not question the authorship in his 2011 biography Edward III. So, Haines is in the distinct minority in this respect, but it raises an interesting and important question nevertheless.

Over the last few months, a British sollicitor, historian and genealogist called Kevin McKenzie (see here for his contribution to the fascinating book May We Be Britons: a History of the McKenzies) has become a contributor to our crowd-researching project. He has made some extremely valuable contributions, one of which clearly demonstrating some of the advantages of the crowd-researching approach – the people involved can bring insights from other professions, not just history. In his daily life, Kevin is a sollicitor, and it was as a legal professional that he noticed something important about the Fieschi Letter: it has a definite ‘lawyerly’ sound to it. There is something ‘sollicitor-like’ to the way it is written. As Kevin wrote:

I see that the letter begins with the opening words:  “In the name of the Lord, Amen” and that its concluding words make clear that it was a draft prepared with the intention of having affixed to it the seal of Manuele Fieschi.  The affixation of a seal to a document appears to me to have been the equivalent at the time of swearing a document.  Compare for instance the affixation of the seals of the homagers to the 1296 Ragman Roll* as evidence of their oath of allegiance to Edward I.

This seems to me therefore to be tantamount to a document intended to be sworn by the possessor of the seal referred to in the document’s concluding paragraph UNDER OATH – and given the opening words of the letter, the affixation of Manuele Fieschi’s seal to it would have been tantamount also to blasphemy if he as the sealer of the letter was uncertain as to its contents or knew its contents to be definitely or possibly untrue.

And on the subject of circumspect lawyerly language, the use of the bare simple words “your father” and the bald unadorned “he” and “him” when referring to Edward II – rather than, say, “King Edward your father” or “His Highness your father” or “His Highness” etc seems to have been an obvious legal means of avoiding the diplomatic embarassment and potential grave offence of using the wrong mode of address when referring to the oddity (without legal precedent at the time) of a king who had abdicated/been deposed – and to make matters even more horrendously complicated, in doing so addressing a king who was the son of that deposed king during the lifetime of the deposed king!  These words therefore surely indicate that the writer used this term “your father” (without more) deliberately for this precise reason.  They therefore surely support the genuineness of the letter.

medieval-scribe
From an illuminated medieval manuscript: a notary drawing his signum tabellionis at the bottom of a legal document (perhaps an instrumentum). The signum tabellionis was the individual mark as a notary, identifying him, and was a frequent alternative to affixing a seal. In the top left the first letter of the document is also highly elaborate. This, too, could identify the individual notary or scribe, as Elena Corbellini has already discussed in her analysis of the Fieschi Letter.

And so we have a modern day lawyer appreciating the lawyerly skill with which the Fieschi Letter was composed, and noting that it is essentially a formal declaration, or testimony, made under holy oath – ‘In the name of the Lord’.

This aspect of the Letter was first noticed three years ago by Stefano Castagneto, whom readers have met in the last two posts. As a regular reader of medieval legal documents, and in particular those written by Genoese notaries, he immediately commented that the Fieschi Letter had tell-tale signs throughout it that it was, in fact, written by a notary, and that it is both a letter and, at the same time, a legal declaration, an instrumentum, as these notary-written legal documents were known. The proof of this is in the formal composition of the Letter. A quick explanation for readers who, like me before beginning this research, don’t really know what this means. Formal composition is the way a document is made up, what parts form it, and in what order. For example, an essay may have a ‘tripartite’ (three-part) composition, with introduction, discussion and conclusion. Letters, particularly formal letters, have headers, addressee, sender, salutation, main body, complimentary closing, signature, and so forth. Legal documents have their own, often complex, formal compositions. So, what about the Fieschi Letter? How is it constructed, and is this composition appropriate for the time, and for what it claims to be: the letter of a papal notary to an English king, containing testimony of extraordinary events?

Elena Corbellini invited Stefano Castagneto to analyse the formal composition of the Fieschi Letter, and the next two posts will concern just that.

Ivan Fowler.

The Search for Edward II’s Descendants 9) – An Exciting New Contribution from a Reader

Just a few days ago, via our good friend Kathryn Warner, a superb genealogist dealing with the medieval period got in touch with us to share his research on the matrilineal line descending from Eleanor of Castile, carrying the same mitochondrial DNA as King Edward II. His name is Kevin McKenzie, and as well as being a sollicitor, he says “I have been a pretty obsessive genealogist since my early teens!”

Kevin wrote to us with his own original research into the matrilineal line, which, like the research previously provided by Kathryn Warner, brings us to the late 17th century, possibly even the early 18th century, following another line. This is a huge leap forward, and we are extremely grateful to Kevin for sharing this information with us. Family tree researchers out there – please, if any of the women Kevin lists below are in your family trees, get in touch with us! You may carry the mitochondrial DNA of King Edward II!

Kevin writes:

“I was surprised to see from the Auramala Project website (see The Search for Edward II’s Descendants #5) that two of the individuals given with a matrilinear descent from Eleanor (in fact through Joan of Acre), where they are looking for possible living matrilinear descendants, are Philippa Bonville and her sister Margaret Bonville who married Sir William Courtenay of Powderham Castle.

I have information for you regarding Margaret Bonville’s matrilineal line descendants at least as far as the late c17th and I do know that the lady which the matrilinear section of my tree ends with – my ancestress Mary Drake – had a very large number of children.

I also think I can clear up the question of Margaret Bonville’s maternity and whether this was Eleanor’s matrilineal descendant Margaret Grey or instead one “Margaret Merriet”.  Helpfully it seems that Margaret Merriet is a confusion with Sir William Bonville’s grandfather’s wife, Margaret daughter of Sir William d’Aumale, cousin and heir of Sir John Meriet, junior (see extracts from Rootsweb posts as marked in yellow below) – and so the Auramala Project will I am sure be very interested in this – as I can give them an answer to their request for information on this which is a positive one from the matrilineal lines research point of view!

The tree goes as follows and, as you will see, this section of it is entirely matrilinear:

1  Margaret Grey (not Margaret Merriet) = Sir William Bonville, KG (1393 – 1461)

2  Margaret Bonville = Sir William Courtenay of Powderham Castle  (Margaret’s sister Philippa married Sir William Grenville and was thereby the ancestress of Sir Richard Grenville of the Revenge)

3  Joan de Courtenay = William Carew of Mohun Ottery

4  Cecily Carew (sister of Admiral George Carew of the Mary Rose) = Thomas Kirkham

5  Thomasine Kirkham = Thomas Southcote

6  Mary Southcote = Sir William Strode of Newnham Park (d 1637) (a direct descendant of Gregory, son of Thomas Cromwell, and his wife Elizabeth Seymour, sister of Queen Jane)

7  Joan Strode (sister of William Strode MP, one of the famous Five Members) = Sir Francis Drake, 1st Baronet (nephew of Admiral Sir Francis Drake)

8  Mary Drake = Elizeus (or Ellis/Elisha) Crymes of Buckland Monachorum, Devon, MP, Colonel of the Parliamentary  garrison of Plymouth during the Civil War (their son Lewis (or Ludovic) is an ancestor of mine, but not in the seamless matrilinear line).”

Thank you once again Kevin for this extremely valuable information!

Ivan Fowler.